Raphael Kalinowski was born to Polish parents in the city of Vilnius in 1835. After military service, he was in 1846 condemned to ten years of forced labour in Siberia. In 1877 he joined the Discalced (Teresian) Carmelite Order and in 1882 was ordained a priest. He brought about the restoration of the Order in Poland and guided its growth. His life was distinguished by his zeal for Church unity and by his unflagging devotion to his ministry as a confessor and spiritual director. He died in Wadowice in 1907.